Also known as alginic acid, algin is derived from alginate, a naturally occurring polymer obtained from brown algae (phaecophyceae). Algin’s unique marine biological activities provide the skin with benefits, as well as skincare formulation with emulsifying properties. The cosmetic industry uses this gelling-polysaccharide as a water binding agent due to its quick water-absorbing abilities. As a result, algin works to thicken moisturizing skincare formulas, thus providing a more desirable, spreadable texture.
Arbutin is a naturally occurring compound found in many plant sources such as bearberry, mulberry, and pomegranate. It is a better brightening ingredient than Vit C or hydroquinone as it works without side effects and because it's a derivative of hydroquinone, one of the most effective skin-lightening and spot-fading actives out there. It works by slowly releasing hydroquinone over time, inhibiting tyrosinase, the key enzyme responsible for the production of melanin, or pigment, in the skin.
Arginine is an amino acid naturally present in the body, considered essential to human development. As a skin care ingredient, it delivers antioxidant benefits and plays a role in repairing visible skin damage. Additionally, arginine’s hydration properties have been studied in depth. This essential amino acid plays a key role in skin’s natural production of replenishing substances such as proline and urea.
Betula Alba Juice
Betula alba bark extract is derived from the plant commonly known as white birch. This extract serves as an antioxidant to help defend skin from environmental stressors. Studies indicate it may also help reinforce skin's barrier and promote firmer skin.
- derived from the White Birch tree
- antioxidant to help defend skin from environmental stressors
- help reinforce skin's barrier and promote firmer skin
Betaine is a humectant (hydration-optimizing) ingredient that may be plant-derived or synthetic. It also occurs naturally in skin and the body. It's known as an osmolyte, an ingredient that helps skin adapt to moisture losses and gains, essentially working to balance skin's hydration. It is also used to increase skin longevity by preventing fine lines and strengthening skin barrier.
- occurs naturally in skin and the body, can also be plant derived or synthetic
- an ingredient that helps skin adapt to moisture losses and gains, essentially working to balance skin's hydration
- used to increase skin longevity by preventing fine lines and strengthening skin barrier
Butylene glycol is a commonly used ingredient that plays multiple roles in cosmetics, including as a humectant, texture enhancer, solvent, and penetration booster. Research indicates butylene glycol not only helps raise water content in skin (aka hydration) but may also contribute to decreasing roughness on the surface of skin (depending on how it’s combined in the formula). While not known as a preservative in and of itself, some of butylene glycol’s properties can help boost a formula’s stability against microorganisms that may harm skin’s surface.
- What can we say about where it comes from?
- helps raise water content in skin (aka hydration) but may also contribute to decreasing roughness on the surface of skin
- can help boost a formula’s stability against microorganisms that may harm skin’s surface
Calcium chloride is used to increase and improve a formula's viscosity to stabilize the plant-based enzymes in our product. Research [ref] shows that the ingredient is not a skin irritant when used in low concentrations.
Calendula Officinalis Flower Extract
Non-fragrant antioxidant plant extract that has skin-soothing and redness-reducing properties. It's used for its exceptional healing powers and is particularly remarkable in the treatment of wounds. It contains flavonoids that give the plant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
- extracted from marigold flowers
- used for medicinal purposes for centuries
- flavanoids in the extract provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties
Caprylhydroxamic acid is an amino acid (organic compounds that are essential building blocks of life) derived from coconut oil. This ingredient has great flexibility since it works in all types of cosmetic formulas, including waterless (anhydrous) and its efficacy is not pH-dependent. It is sometimes combined with humectants such as glycerin or propanediol to support aesthetics or a more conventional, broad-spectrum preservative system.
- Derived from coconut oil
- Amino acid
- A flexible preservative
Caprylic/capric triglyceride is derived from coconut oil and glycerin and is considered an excellent emollient and skin-replenishing ingredient. Of note, its mix of fatty acids replenish skin’s surface and help it to resist moisture loss. Caprylic/capric triglyceride can also function as a thickener or penetration enhancer, but its chief job is to moisturize and replenish skin. This ingredient’s value for skin is made greater by the fact that it’s considered gentle.
As a raw material caprylic/capric triglyceride is a clear, non-viscous liquid. It is known to improve the spreadability of formulas.
Safety assessments have deemed capric/caprylic triglyceride safe in cosmetic formulations in concentrations below 50%, with reported uses varying between 0.1% to 35%.
Despite what is often purported on the internet skin care advice sites, there is no research showing caprylic/capric triglyceride is “comedogenic” or pore clogging. (This assumption is often tied to its relation to coconut oil.) Theoretically, because its molecular weight of 408 is below 500 Daltons, caprylic/capric triglyceride technically has the ability to penetrate the pore lining, but even that doesn’t inherently mean it will clog pores.
Caprylyl glycol (1,2-octanediol) is used as a skin conditioning agent; has some antimicrobial activity.
As a skin care ingredient, carnosine is a synthetic peptide that is biomimetic, meaning it is designed to emulate the natural carnosine found in the body where it functions as a protein building block (the carnosine peptide contains the amino acids histidine and alanine). Topically applied, carnosine has skin-soothing and antioxidant properties that allow it to protect against oxidative stress and perform anti-aging capabilities.
There is some research indicating carnosine offers antiglycation properties. (Glycation is a process that leads to wrinkles, so warding it off is a good thing.) Manufacturer studies also tout carnosine’s ability to boost collagen, but as is generally the case for peptides, specific formulary considerations and delivery systems have to be in place for carnosine to effectively reach where it would need to go to have that effect.
Since carnosine occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in maintaining health, it is considered safe for topical use. The general range considered effective for use in skin care is anywhere between 0.05-2%.
Ceramide NP is one of several types of ceramides found naturally in skin. It plays a critical role as a major component of skin’s outer layers (healthy skin is generally composed of 50% ceramides, many of which are of the NP variety). “N” stands for the type of normal fatty acid correlated to this ingredient and “P” stands for its phytosphingosine base.
Ceramides used in skin care can be created synthetically or sourced naturally from plants. Research shows skin care products containing ceramide NP can help improve the look and feel of dry or dehydrated skin thanks to its water retention properties.
Ceramide NP has also been shown to reinforce skin’s barrier strength to better resist external stressors. Overall, it contributes to supple, resilient, hydrated skin.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel’s 2020 assessment concluded that ceramide ingredients are safe in cosmetics in the present practices of use. Their survey data looked at personal care products containing concentrations up to 0.00005-0.2% ceramide NP.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is naturally found within citrus fruits, especially from citrus fruits such as lemons and limes. Its usual commercial uses in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals include its role as a pH adjustor and skin thickening agent within gels and creams. Citric acid’s clinical effects include being able to help improve the appearance of photoaged skin, help improve the skin elasticity, increase skin firmness, as well as an skin exfoliator, therefore helping with allowing new cells surface the skin faster to allow smooth skin. Citric acid has also been suggested to help repair skin barrier function. Citric acid manages to do this by maintaining the optimum level of acidic pH in areas of the skin which are essential for normal skin barrier function.
Citrus Aurantioum Amara (Bitter Orange) Flower Extract
It's the flower water coming from the flowers of bitter orange. In general, flower waters (also called hydrosols) are diluted versions of essential oils coming from the same plant. It has good skin toning properties. They contain the same components but in far less of a concentration. So orange flower water contains a lot of fragrant components and has a nice, sweet scent.
It is a carbohydrate that is classified as a polysaccharide. It is used as an adhesive when mixed with water. For skin it can have water-binding properties.
Dimethicone/PEG-10/15 crosspolymer, a common cosmetic ingredient, serves as a texture enhancer, film former, emollient, thickening agent, and stabilizer. It enhances product texture, leaves the skin feeling soft.
Disodium EDTA is a salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (commonly known as EDTA). In skincare, it functions primarily as a chelating agent, meaning it prevents ingredients in a formula from binding with trace elements (mainly minerals) that can be present in water or other ingredients.
Ergothioneine, found in cosmetics, offers antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin protection, and soothing properties. It can help protect the skin, reduce inflammation, and contribute to anti-aging effects.
Ethylhexylglycerin is a versatile cosmetic ingredient used as a preservative enhancer, deodorizing agent, skin conditioner, texture enhancer, and humectant. It enhances product safety, texture, and skin hydration.
Ethylhexyl stearate, a common cosmetic ingredient, functions as an emollient, texture enhancer, and solvent. It softens and soothes the skin, improves product texture, and ensures ingredients mix well, contributing to product quality.
Fragrance in cosmetics enhances product appeal by providing a pleasing scent, improving the sensory experience.
Gardenia Jasminoides Fruit Extract
Gardenia jasminoides fruit extract, used in cosmetics, offers a pleasant fragrance and potential aromatherapeutic, skin-soothing, antioxidant, and skin conditioning properties. It contributes to the sensory experience and skin benefits of various skincare and personal care products.
Gellan gum, a common cosmetic ingredient, functions as a texture enhancer, stabilizer, film former, and thickener. It improves product texture, stability, and viscosity.
Glycerin, commonly found in cosmetics, serves as a humectant, skin barrier enhancer, emollient, solvent, viscosity enhancer, skin soother, and active ingredient carrier. It hydrates the skin, enhances texture, and contributes to product stability.
Glyceryl caprylate, found in cosmetics, serves as an emollient, emulsifier, preservative enhancer, texture enhancer, and skin conditioner. It softens the skin, stabilizes product components, and enhances product texture and quality in various skincare and personal care items.
Glyceryl glucoside, a common cosmetic ingredient, functions as a moisturizer, skin barrier supporter, emollient, skin soother, and texture enhancer. It hydrates the skin, promotes skin health, and enhances product texture in various skincare and personal care items.
Glyceryl stearate, a common cosmetic ingredient, functions as an emollient, texture enhancer, emulsifier, skin conditioner, and binder. It softens and smooths the skin, improves product texture, and ensures ingredient stability.
Glycyrrhizic acid, used in cosmetics, offers anti-inflammatory, skin brightening, antioxidant, soothing, and potential wound-healing properties. It is commonly included in products targeting sensitive skin, hyperpigmentation, and skin irritation.
Hydrogenated lecithin is a versatile cosmetic ingredient often used in skincare and personal care products. Derived from natural sources like soybeans, it acts as an emollient, skin conditioning agent, and emulsifier, improving the texture and feel of cosmetic formulations. As an emollient, it helps to soften and hydrate the skin, enhancing its smoothness and moisture content. Additionally, hydrogenated lecithin is known for its ability to improve the stability and consistency of products, acting as an emulsifier to blend water and oil-based ingredients, ensuring that the product remains well-mixed and homogeneous. This ingredient plays a crucial role in enhancing the overall quality of various skincare items, including creams, lotions, and serums, where it supports skin hydration and product performance.
Hydroxyacetophenone, a cosmetic ingredient, functions primarily as an antioxidant and preservative booster in skincare and personal care products. It helps protect cosmetic formulations from deterioration due to exposure to air and light, extending their shelf life and maintaining product integrity. As an antioxidant, it also assists in shielding the skin from oxidative stress and environmental aggressors, contributing to overall skin health. Additionally, hydroxyacetophenone is known for its potential to soothe and calm the skin, making it a valuable addition to products designed for sensitive or reactive skin types. It plays a crucial role in enhancing product stability, preserving the effectiveness of other ingredients, and supporting skin protection and comfort.
Isohexadecane, a common cosmetic ingredient, functions as an emollient, texture enhancer, solvent, spreadability enhancer, oil controller, and water-resistant agent. It softens and soothes the skin, improves product texture, and enhances the performance of various skincare and personal care products.
Magnolia Liliflora Flower Extract
Magnolia liliflora flower extract, used in cosmetics, offers antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin-soothing, fragrance, and skin-brightening properties. It can protect the skin, reduce irritation, and improve skin tone.
Mannitol, a sugar-derived ingredient, is commonly used in cosmetics and skincare products for its hydrating and antioxidant properties. It serves as a humectant, helping to attract and retain moisture in the skin, which is vital for maintaining skin hydration and suppleness. Mannitol also possesses antioxidant properties that can protect the skin from oxidative stress and environmental damage, potentially reducing the signs of premature aging. It is often included in cosmetic formulations to enhance skin moisturization and offer additional protection against external factors like pollution and UV radiation, contributing to overall skin health and vitality.
Niacinamide, also known as vitamin B3, is a versatile and well-regarded cosmetic ingredient commonly found in skincare products. It offers a multitude of benefits, making it a skincare powerhouse. Niacinamide is known for its ability to improve skin's texture, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and enhance skin barrier function. It is also effective at minimizing the appearance of pores and controlling excess oil production, making it an excellent choice for those with oily or acne-prone skin. Additionally, niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties, helping to soothe and calm irritated skin. Its versatility, coupled with its compatibility with various skin types, has led to its inclusion in a wide range of cosmetic products, including serums, moisturizers, and treatments, where it plays a crucial role in promoting healthy and radiant skin.
Oligopeptide-1, found in cosmetics, promotes skin regeneration, wound healing, skin smoothing, and anti-aging effects. It stimulates skin cell renewal and can help with wound recovery.
Palmitoyl tripeptide-5, a common cosmetic ingredient, is known for its anti-aging and skin-firming properties. It supports collagen production, reduces fine lines, and enhances skin firmness. It provides moisturization, skin soothing, and improved texture in skincare and personal care products.
PEG-100 stearate is a cosmetic ingredient commonly used in skincare and personal care products. It primarily serves as an emulsifier and surfactant, facilitating the mixing and stabilization of water and oil-based ingredients within cosmetic formulations. By acting as an emulsifier, it ensures that the product maintains a consistent texture, allowing it to effectively blend and distribute water and oil components. This enhances product uniformity and application. PEG-100 stearate also contributes to the overall feel and texture of the product, making it smoother and more comfortable to apply, which is crucial in the development of various skincare and personal care items, including creams, lotions, and cleansers.
Pentylene glycol, found in cosmetics, serves as a humectant, solvent, preservative enhancer, skin conditioner, and texture enhancer. It hydrates the skin, ensures ingredient stability, and enhances product texture in various skincare and personal care items.
Petrolatum, found in cosmetics, acts as an emollient, occlusive agent, protective barrier, and makeup remover. It softens and soothes the skin, locks in moisture, and protects against environmental factors.
Phenoxyethanol, a common cosmetic ingredient, functions as a preservative, fragrance ingredient, and solvent. It preserves product integrity, provides a pleasant scent, and stabilizes other ingredients.
Phenyl trimethicone, found in cosmetics, functions as an emollient, texture enhancer, shine and gloss enhancer, water-resistant agent, and spreading enhancer. It softens and smooths the skin, adds shine to hair, and improves product texture and performance.
Phytosteryl/Octyldodecyl Lauroyl Glutamate
Phytosteryl/octyldodecyl lauroyl glutamate, found in cosmetics, functions as an emollient, skin conditioner, texture enhancer, stabilizer, and oil controller. It softens the skin, improves product texture, and enhances formulation stability, while also helping to control excess oil.
Polysorbate 80, found in cosmetics, functions as an emulsifier, solubilizer, texture enhancer, cleansing agent, and stabilizer. It helps blend water and oil-based ingredients, improve product texture, and ensure ingredient stability.
Potassium sorbate, found in cosmetics, primarily functions as a preservative and texture enhancer. It ensures product safety and stability, improving the texture and overall quality of various skincare and personal care items.
Propylene glycol, in cosmetics, functions as a humectant, solvent, texture enhancer, skin penetration enhancer, preservative enhancer, and antifreeze. It hydrates the skin, enhances product texture, and improves ingredient penetration.
Rosa Damascena Flower Water
Rosa Damascena Flower Water, also known as rose water, is a cosmetic ingredient that offers hydration, skin soothing, and a pleasant fragrance. Derived from Damask roses, it refreshes the skin, provides antioxidants, and leaves the skin feeling soft. It is commonly used in toners, mists, and skincare products to enhance the overall cosmetic experience.
Sodium Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer
Sodium acrylate/sodium acryloyldimethyl taurate copolymer, found in cosmetics, serves as a thickening agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, suspension agent, and binding agent. It improves product consistency, maintains ingredient stability, and aids in particle suspension.
Sodium benzoate, present in cosmetics, primarily functions as a preservative and pH adjuster. It ensures product safety and stability by preventing microbial growth and helping maintain the desired pH level.
Sodium citrate is a cosmetic ingredient commonly used in skincare and personal care products. It serves multiple roles, primarily as a pH adjuster and chelating agent. As a pH adjuster, it helps maintain and stabilize the desired pH level of the product, ensuring that it is skin-friendly and chemically stable. Sodium citrate also acts as a chelating agent, binding to metal ions in the formulation, which can help improve the stability and shelf life of the product by preventing the breakdown of certain ingredients. It is good for topical use and is commonly found in a variety of cosmetics, including cleansers, lotions, shampoos, and creams, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining product integrity and quality.
Sodium hyaluronate, a derivative of hyaluronic acid, is a widely used cosmetic ingredient known for its remarkable hydrating and skin-rejuvenating properties. As a humectant, it can hold a significant amount of water, helping to attract and retain moisture in the skin. This leads to improved skin hydration, increased suppleness, and a reduction in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, making it a valuable addition to anti-aging and moisturizing skincare products. Sodium hyaluronate is well-tolerated by the skin, offering a non-irritating and plumping effect, making it an essential ingredient in various skincare and personal care items like serums, moisturizers, and masks, where it enhances skin hydration and overall product quality.
Soluble collagen is a cosmetic ingredient widely used in skincare and personal care products, known for its skin-firming and moisturizing properties. Derived from collagen, the body's own structural protein, soluble collagen can help enhance skin elasticity and hydration. When applied topically, it forms a film on the skin's surface, temporarily smoothing out fine lines and contributing to a more youthful appearance. Its humectant properties make it an effective moisturizing agent, helping to retain water in the skin, resulting in improved skin hydration and suppleness. Soluble collagen is commonly found in anti-aging creams, serums, and moisturizers, where it plays a crucial role in enhancing skin firmness, reducing the appearance of fine lines, and improving overall skin texture.
Trehalose is a cosmetic ingredient widely utilized in skincare and personal care products, known for its moisturizing and protective properties. Derived from natural sources like plants and fungi, trehalose acts as a humectant, helping to attract and retain moisture in the skin. Its ability to form a protective barrier around skin cells can enhance skin hydration and prevent moisture loss, making it beneficial in products designed for dry and dehydrated skin. Additionally, trehalose has been used in cosmetics to help protect the skin from environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and pollution, potentially aiding in maintaining skin health. It is commonly found in various skincare items, including moisturizers, serums, and masks, where it plays a significant role in improving skin hydration and resilience.
Water is a fundamental and ubiquitous component in cosmetics, serving as the primary solvent and vehicle for most formulations. It acts as a carrier for active ingredients, ensuring their effective dispersion and delivery to the skin. Water plays a crucial role in hydrating the skin and providing the necessary medium for product application, helping to dissolve and mix other ingredients such as emollients, emulsifiers, and preservatives. Its versatility as a base allows for various product textures and consistencies, from lightweight lotions to creamy moisturizers. Water is also essential for cooling and refreshing properties in cosmetic products, such as toners and mists, making it a fundamental component in skincare and personal care items.
Xanthan gum is a versatile cosmetic ingredient commonly used in skincare and personal care products. It functions as a thickener, stabilizer, and emulsifier, contributing to the texture and stability of cosmetic formulations. Xanthan gum can enhance the viscosity of products, providing a desirable consistency and preventing ingredient separation. It also helps products maintain their structure and remain well-mixed, even when they contain a combination of water and oil-based ingredients. Its stabilizing properties are essential for the overall quality and performance of various cosmetic items, including creams, lotions, and serums, where it ensures a smooth and uniform application and a pleasant product experience.